Edorium Journal of

Microbiology

 
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Original Article
 
Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial etiologies of urinary tract infections among students attending Sick-Bay of Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
Henry Gabriel Bishop1, Fahad Shehu2
1BSc., MSc., Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
2BSc, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Article ID: 100004M08HB2016
doi:10.5348/M08-2016-4-OA-2

Address correspondence to:
Henry Gabriel Bishop
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Kaduna State
Nigeria, 810001

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How to cite this article
Bishop HG, Shehu F. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial etiologies of urinary tract infections among students attending Sick-Bay of Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria. Edorium J Microbiol 2016;2:7–12.


Abstract
Aims: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect people of all ages, genders and races. Urinary tract infections result from the invasion and colonization of tissues of parts of the urinary tract, with inflammatory responses. Asymptomatic cases occur but complicated cases are often discomforting. Treatment is necessary, but relies largely on appropriate diagnoses and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Hence, this research determined the bacterial etiologies of UTIs, their distribution and susceptibility to antibiotics amongst students presenting with UTI symptoms at Ahmadu Bello University Sick-bay, Nigeria.
Methods: Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from 100 students with UTI symptoms and inoculated onto sterile plates of Cystine Lactos-Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED) agar and Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA). They were incubated at 37°C for 24–48 hours. The structured questionnaires were administered to the patients to gather some demographic data. Pure isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical characterization. The isolates were challenged with selected antibiotics. Results were statistically analyzed at p = 0.05.
Results: Bacterial growths occurred from half (50) of the samples. The isolates comprised of 43(86.0%) and 7(14.0%) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria respectively. The most prevalent uropathogen was E. coli (39%). Klebsiella pneumoniae (3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1%), Staphylococcus aureus (7%) were also isolated. E. coli had higher occurrence among the females (22%). Age-group 26–30 years had the highest occurrences of E. coli and S. aureus, but P. aeruginosa occurred only in age-group 36–40 years. Bacterial UTI cases increased with increase in age, peaked at 26–30 years, and then gradually decreased in like fashion. All the isolates were most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (10 µg), oflaxacin (10 µg) followed by pefloxacin (30 µg) and chloramphenicol (30 µg). Gentamycin (10 µg) had the least activity against the isolates.
Conclusion: Bacterial UTI cases increased with age, but after peaking at 26–30 years age group, they decreased continuously. Escherichia coli remains the predominant cause of UTIs. The most potent antibiotics against bacterial UTI-etiologies were ciprofloxacin (10 µg), oflaxacin (10 µg) followed by pefloxacin (30 µg) and chloramphenicol (30 µg). Gentamycin (10 µg) was the least effective against the isolates.

Keywords: Antibiotic, E. coli, Escherichia coli, Urinary tract infections (UTIs), UTI-etiology, Zaria


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Author Contributions:
Henry Gabriel Bishop – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Fahad Shehu – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Henry Gabriel Bishop et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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