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Original Article
 
Effect of biosurfactant produced by Citrobacter murliniae AF025369 and a synthetic surfactant on degradation of crude oil
Chikodili Gladys Anaukwu1, Chinyere Constance Ezemba2, Vivian Nonye Anakwenze1, Kingsley Chukwuebuka Agu1, Benjamin Chidi Okeke1, Nsikak Sunday Awah1, Ikechukwu Amaechi Ekwealor1
1Department of Applied Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, Rennaissance University, Enugu, Nigeria.

Article ID: 100003M08AC2015
doi:10.5348/M08-2016-3-OA-3

Address correspondence to:
Chikodili Gladys Anaukwu
Department of Applied Microbiology
Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Awka, P.M.B.5025, Anambra State
Nigeria

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How to cite this article
Anaukwu CG, Ezemba CC, Anakwenze VN, Agu KC, Okeke BC, Awah NS, Ekwealor IA. Effect of biosurfactant produced by Citrobacter murliniae AF025369 and a synthetic surfactant on degradation of crude oil. Edorium J Microbiol 2016;2:1–6.


Abstract
Aims: To compare crude oil degradation by Citrobacter murliniae AF025369 in the presence of biosurfactant produced by Citrobacter murliniae AF025369 and a named chemical surfactant.
Methods: Biosurfactant-producing bacterium was isolated from spent engine-oil polluted soil and analyzed for biosurfactant production in mineral salt medium using 2% glycerol as sole carbon source. The isolate was identified based on 16S rDNA sequence. Biosurfactant production was determined by drop collapse test, oil displacement test and emulsification index measurement. Tensoactive property and bioemulsification activity of the biosurfactant was carried out on various hydrophobic substrates. Crude oil degradation was investigated by gravimetric analysis.
Results: The biosurfactant production assay gave an emulsification index (E24) of 66.67%, oil displacement of 1.8 cm and a positive drop collapse. It reduced surface tension of water from 72–42 mN/m, with critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 60 mg/L. Assessment of bioemulsification activities of the biosurfactant produced by C. murliniae with various hydrocarbon substrates gave highest emulsification index (E24) of 73.33% with palm oil, 70% E24 with crude oil and least E24 of 33.33% with fuel. Crude oil degradation analysis revealed that C. murliniae was able to degrade crude oil by 94%, it attained 96% crude oil degradation when the biosurfactant was introduced into the medium and 78% degradation when supplemented with Tween-80. Statistical analysis indicates that there is significant difference on the degradation rate using one-way ANOVA (p-value 0.0004).
Conclusion: The results obtained show that biosurfactant was a better biostimulant and has great potential to be used in bioremediation processes, especially in the petroleum industry.

Keywords: Biosurfactant, Citrobacter murliniae, Crude oil degradation, Emulsification index


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Author Contributions:
Chikodili Gladys Anaukwu – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, final approval of the version to be published
Chinyere Constance Ezemba – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Vivian Nonye Anakwenze – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intel0lectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Kingsley Chukwuebuka Agu – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Nsikak Sunday Awah – Ssubstantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Benjamin Chidi Okeke – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Ikechukwu Amechi Ekwealor – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Chikodili Gladys Anaukwu et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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